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2008 June UGC NET Paper-1, Page-2

Read the following passage and answer the questions 11 to 15:
The fundamental principle is that Article 14 forbids class legislation but permits reasonable classification for the purpose of legislation which classification must satisfy the twin tests of classification being founded on an intelligible differentia which distinguishes persons or things that are grouped together from those that are left out of the group and that differentia must have a rational nexus to the object sought to be achieved by the Statute in question. The thrust of Article 14 is that the citizen is entitled to equality before law and equal protection of laws. In the very nature of things the society being composed of unequals a welfare State will have to strive by both executive and legislative action to help the less fortunate in society to ameliorate their condition so that the social and economic inequality in the society may be bridged. This would necessitate a legislative application to a group of citizens otherwise unequal and amelioration of whose lot is the object of state affirmative action. In the absence of the doctrine of classification such legislation is likely to flounder on the bed rock of equality enshrined in Article 14. The Court realistically appraising the social and economic inequality and keeping in view the guidelines on which the State action must move as constitutionally laid down in Part IV of the Constitution evolved the doctrine of classification. The doctrine was evolved to sustain a legislation or State action designed to help weaker sections of the society or some such segments of the society in need of succour. Legislative and executive action may accordingly be sustained if it satisfies the twin tests of reasonable classification and the rational principle correlated to the object sought to be achieved.
The concept of equality before the law does not involve the idea of absolute equality among human beings which is a physical impossibility. All that Article 14 guarantees is a similarity of treatment contra-distinguished from identical treatment. Equality before law means that among equals the law should be equal and should be equally administered and that the likes should be treated alike. Equality before the law does not mean that things which are different shall be as though they are the same. It of course means denial of any special privilege by reason of birth, creed or the like. The legislation as well as the executive government, while dealing with diverse problems arising out of an infinite variety of human relations must of necessity have the power of making special laws, to attain any particular object and to achieve that object it must have the power of selection or classification of persons and things upon which such laws are to operate.

11. Right to equality, one of the fundamental rights, is enunciated in the constitution under Part III, Article:
(A) 12
(B) 13
(C) 14
(D) 15
Answer: (C)

12. The main thrust of Right to equality is that it permits:
(A) Class legislation
(B) Equality before law and equal protection under the law
(C) Absolute equality
(D) Special privilege by reason of birth
Answer: (B)

13. The social and economic inequality in the society can be bridged by:
(A) Executive and legislative action
(B) Universal suffrage
(C) Identical treatment
(D) None of the above
Answer: (A)

14. The doctrine of classification is evolved to:
(A) Help weaker sections of the society
(B) Provide absolute equality
(C) Provide identical treatment
(D) None of the above
Answer: (A)

15. While dealing with diverse problems arising out of an infinite variety of human relations, the government
(A) Must have the power of making special laws
(B) Must not have any power to make special laws
(C) Must have power to withdraw equal rights
(D) None of the above
Answer: (A)

16. Communication with oneself is known as:
(A) Group communication
(B) Grapevine communication
(C) Interpersonal communication
(D) Intrapersonal communication
Answer: (D)

17. Which broadcasting system for TV is followed in India?
Answer: (B)

18. All India Radio before 1936 was known as:
(A) Indian Radio Broadcasting
(B) Broadcasting Service of India
(C) Indian Broadcasting Service
(D) All India Broadcasting Service
Answer: (C)

19. The biggest news agency of India is:
(D) Samachar Bharati
Answer: (A)

20. Prasar Bharati was launched in the year:
(A) 1995
(B) 1997
(C) 1999
(D) 2001
Answer: (B)
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